One Health in Mycoplasmas: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance in Mycoplasmas Infecting Humans, Animals, Plants and Insects”

A special issue of Antibiotics

an open access journal published monthly online by MDPI.

Mycoplasmas are among the smallest forms of life in nature and exist as commensals or pathogens of organisms across the tree of life. They are associated with disease in premature newborn babies and sexually transmitted disease in adults, infectious respiratory disease in domesticated farm animals (pigs, chickens and cattle), as well as wild game (antelope, camels and flamingos), causing infectious damage to fruit crops of citrus trees, and have even been found in jellyfish. The entire over-arching class of Mollicutes to which they belong have no cell wall, scavenge nucleotides from their host and commonly reside within host cells, making them completely resistant to most classes of antibiotics. Therefore, monitoring the evolution and spread of resistance to the remaining effective antibiotics is of international concern. This Special Issue is dedicated to the International Organisation of Mycoplasmology in its continued effort to monitor resistance, develop new antibiotic therapies and guidelines, and develop alternatives for treating Mycoplasma infection in the face of diminishing effective antibiotics.

Dr. Owen B. Spiller
Guest Editor

More information at

Mycoplasma agalactiae: The Sole Cause of Classical Contagious Agalactia?

A recent commentary by Migliore at al. (2021) recommends that contagious agalactia (CA) should only be diagnosed and confirmed when M. agalactiae is detected either by isolation or molecular methods. The other three mycoplasmas classically associated with CA (M. mycoides subsp. capri, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens) should removed from the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines in Terrestrial Animals and associated sources.


For over thirty years, contagious agalactia has been recognized as a mycoplasma disease affecting small ruminants caused by four different pathogens: Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens which were previously thought to produce clinically similar diseases. Today, with major advances in diagnosis enabling the rapid identification by molecular methods of causative mycoplasmas from infected flocks, it is time to revisit this issue. In this paper, we discuss and argue the reasons to support Mycoplasma agalactiae infection as the sole cause of contagious agalactia.

Migliore S, Puleio R, Nicholas RAJ, Loria GR. Mycoplasma agalactiae: The Sole Cause of Classical Contagious Agalactia? Animals. 2021; 11(6):1782.

Frontiers logo

Mollicutes: From Evolution To Pathogenesis

A Frontiers Research Topics

This Research Topic covers a broad range of topics and aims at gathering the latest development in mycoplasmology research, including but not limited to:
• Mollicutes evolution
• Mollicutes biology and genetics
• Functional and comparative genomics of Mollicutes
• Interactions between Mollicutes and their hosts (plants, insects, animals or humans)
• Mollicute virulence factors and pathogenesis
• New and emerging Mollicutes
• Mollicute diagnostic tools
• Study addressing Mollicitute antimicrobials and resistance
• Study addressing the control of Mollicute diseases

Topic Editors

Glenn Francis Browning The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Chih-Horng Kuo Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
Florence TARDY Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire de l’Alimentation, de l’Environnement et du Travail (ANSES), Maisons-Alfort, France
Meghan May University of New England, Portland, United States
Christine Citti Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris, France

Mycoplasmas under experimental antimicrobial selection: The unpredicted contribution of horizontal chromosomal transfer

Researchers from IHAP and their colleagues at ANSES and the University of Melbourne have demonstrated that some mycoplasmas have the capacity to exchange virtually any part of their genome via a form of sexual behavior. This was further shown to play a role in accelerating the acquisition of chromosomal mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance in ruminant, pathogenic Mycoplasmas. 
Faucher M., Nouvel LX, Dordet-Frisoni E, Sagné E, Baranowski E, Hygonenq MC, Marenda MS, Tardy F, Citti C.  under experimental antimicrobial selection: The unpredicted contribution of horizontal chromosomal transfer. PLoS Genet. 2019 Jan 22;15(1):e1007910. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007910. eCollection 2019 Jan.